What is Targeted Keto? How to Properly Time Carbohydrates on Keto

What is Targeted Keto? How to Properly Time Carbohydrates on Keto

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Carbs Pre Workout – Glycogen Usage During Exercise

The liver and muscles convert glycogen into glucose for immediate use – believed that the main function of skeletal muscle glycogen, from an evolutionary point of view, is to serve as an energy store in “fight or flight” situations

Insulin Anabolic Effect on Muscle

Another benefit of consuming carbohydrates prior to working out, is the effect that it has on insulin levels – insulin has a protective effect on muscle – it can inhibit muscle/protein breakdown

Insulin is Anti-Catabolic

A study from Endocrinology concluded that insulin regulates protein catabolism, at least in part, by decreasing ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal activity – it inhibits the ubiquitin-dependent degrading activity of the 26S Proteasome

The 26S proteasome catalyzes protein degradation

*The Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) is the principal mechanism for protein catabolism in the mammalian cytosol and nucleus – the highly regulated UPP affects a wide variety of cellular processes and substrates and defects in the system can result in the pathogenesis of several important human diseases.*

In regards to leucine, insulin has an inhibitory effect on leucine transamination – transamination is a pathway responsible for the deamination of most amino acids; one of the major degradation pathways which convert essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids (transamination is a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a keto acid to form new amino acids)

Lastly, insulin inhibits liver protein breakdown enzymes and it’s main anabolic effect on muscle protein in adult humans is an inhibition of protein breakdown

Another way of looking at it is that insulin causes the inhibition of lysosomal autophagy (in the lysosome, proteins are degraded by proteolytic enzymes)

Refueling Hack + Caffeine

Glucose + Fructose + Salt (to enhance glycogen refueling)

Glucose is absorbed through a sodium dependent glucose transporter protein called SGLT1 – this transport protein in the brush border membrane has a high affinity for glucose and galactose but not fructose

Fructose uses a different transport system and is transported (independent of sodium) by GLUT5

SGLT1, acronym of Sodium-dependent GLucose coTransporter 1, which carries out the co-transport of one molecule of glucose/galactose together with two sodium ions (then energy will be spent for removing sodium from the cell and so keeping the gradient along which other sodium may enter again)

Study from The British Journal of Nutrition found that the ingestion of glucose:fructose was at an average rate of 2.4 g/min resulted in 65% greater oxidation than glucose only and very high peak oxidation rates of 1.75 g/min were reached

*a mixture of glucose and fructose can be ingested at a high rate of 2.4 g/min – a carb that uses SGLT1 is ingested at a rate of just 1 g/min

And used to believe that when “fast carbohydrates” were ingested during exercise, these could not be oxidized at rates higher than 1 g/min (60 g/h)

Caffeine (combined with carbohydrates) following exercise can help refill muscle glycogen faster than carbs alone

Study – Journal of Applied Physiology

The study was conducted on 7 well-trained endurance cyclists who participated in four sessions – they ingested a drink that contained carbs alone or carbs plus caffeine and rested in the laboratory for four hours

Glucose and insulin levels higher with caffeine ingestion with researchers finding:
– one hour after exercise, muscle glycogen levels had replenished to the same extent in both groups However, four hours after exercise, the drink containing caffeine resulted in 66% higher glycogen levels compared to the carb-only drink

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