Dr. Benjamin Bikman – ‘Insulin vs. Glucagon: The relevance of dietary protein’

Insulin vs Glucagon: Correlation with Protein Intake Speaker: Dr

Benjamin Bikman "Ketyl Translation Group" Translation: Leo Tseng Proofreading: Claire (March 3, 2018) (Breakfast, Colorado, USA) (Low Sugar Workshop) "Insulin vs Glucagon: Correlation with Protein Uptake" Benjamin Bikman Associate Professor, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University Thank you Eric for introducing I study insulin and mitochondria Why are I half of this theme? I can talk about insulin, but glyce is the new role this time Before I started Thank you, Jeff and Rod for your invitation I am very happy to be here again It’s fun here, there are many familiar faces

Not a bit stranger like last year Last year was my first time when I was involved in Jeff and Rod That is the first step in my step into the low sugar community Very happy since this time I am very grateful to know a lot of people and have established a sincere friendship In fact as a scientist I am very grateful for the substantial cooperation with this community So I really thank you thank you

So today we are going to talk about insulin vs glycosides I continue to pay attention to the discussion of the low sugar community about the role of protein play I sometimes worry when I hear everyone talking about the fear of protein So I did an academic inquiry

Decided to share some of my conclusions with you This is my speaker statement before I start I am involved in two groups Insulin IQ Here we try to remind everyone about the relevance of insulin and health My favorite audience is sharing information with doctors in medical lectures in hospitals And "Best Fat" is our contribution to the rapidly growing fat supplements

So last year The first step in my step into the low sugar community I talked about the relationship between insulin and ketone bodies And their effect on the decoupling contrast effect of fat cells and mitochondria That is white fat and brown fat You can see from the title that I won’t talk about those today So I turned everyone into a disappointing community But here are some new messages for you This is an article we just published a few months ago

My students and I published this article in a good period of "biochemistry" We found that the evidence that I have a year of insulin is here We write all the evidence in this Insulin brakes on mitochondrial decoupling Forced the mitochondria in fat cells to be more tightly coupled In other words, using energy only when needed is what insulin does I will give a final update next year We will have complete human ketone body related data to be more specific and clear So if Jeff and Rod don’t think I’m bored, we’ll see you next year

Same place at the same time Let us enter the theme This is the pancreas In fact, I deliberately chose this picture because it looks less colorful But this is the pancreas hidden under the stomach In a large number of cells in the pancreas Cells associated with endocrine function Have cells associated with digestive or exocrine functions We care about Alpha cells and beta cells These cells are so famous because they each secrete insulin and glycosides Interestingly, the cells that produce insulin and glycosides are actually located next to each other in the pancreatic islet cell mass

In some respects, they are enemies who are antagonistic to each other in almost every biochemical reaction If insulin wants to dry glucagon, it will try to stop Glucagon wants to stop the insulin and try to stop it, so it is no different from my family However we see insulin Quote Mike and Mary Dan Eades because they speak well insulin is a hormone for eating and storing And glycosides are fasting and burning hormones From a more biochemical point of view Insulin is an anabolic hormone building stuff That is to make a larger thing with simple molecules and save it Glucagon wants to break down complex molecules Usually broken down into energy sources that the body can use So it's catabolic, a hormone that essentially promotes catabolism And insulin is essentially promoting anabolism When we observe these hormones let us take a closer look at them in dry hemp Remind everyone that most tissues in the body are affected by insulin and glycosides

Insulin affects every cell of the body, and every cell has an insulin receptor Glycanin affects most cells, no matter how we look at the three tissues most related to metabolism Just look at the picture, you may not know what those are On the left is the muscle in the middle is the fat tissue on the right When we observe these three organizations Hormones have different effects on them The effect of insulin on muscle is completely anabolic Promote muscle synthesis And glycogen synthesis, which is the presence of glucose in the muscles for later use

Glycanin has no influence This is one of those exceptions Muscle cells without a glycoside receptor Therefore, there is no catabolism in this glycosin that can't be called muscle to do anything Conversely There are two kinds of receptors in the fat cells, so we can see this antagonism Yin-yang relationship between two hormones Insulin increases storage through lipids to promote fat cell growth Glucagon antagonizes its promotion of fat cell shrinkage through lipolysis And this antagonistic plot is also staged in the liver Insulin is called liver synthesis of fat, synthetic glycogen, which is to store fatty acids, store glucose Glycosides antagonize these effects Want to break down fat, break down liver sugar and want to produce glucose Also want to produce ketone bodies, which is another source of fuel for the body The role of these hormones in these organizations is different

Muscle cells are completely affected only by insulin in both Adipocytes appear to be more sensitive to insulin than glycosides If your insulin and glycoside are one to one Insulin will win this tug-of-war Insulin can be said to clamp fat cells In a similar way, glycosides have a greater impact on all aspects of liver function So when the liver meets insulin and glycosides Usually the glycosidic dominant scene can beat insulin In contrast, insulin is usually the winner in fat cells So the two hormones and glycosides determine the biochemical reactions in these three metabolically related tissues In fact, you can list more organizations

We must find out how the three major nutrients affect insulin and glycosides And this is not as intuitive as we imagined This is what I want to know about this topic The effect of carbohydrates we see the opposite effect like this In any case, carbohydrates increase insulin and lower glycosides Textbooks say that protein intake has complementary effects Protein boosts both insulin and glycoside Make proteins a bit of a nutrient for low-sugar communities I am not sure if the fear is reasonable I suggest that you may need to change this idea And fat is such that the three major nutrients here are all eaten alone

If you eat a tablespoon of carbohydrates or protein or fat Fat does not increase insulin will only increase glyce So the fat is very friendly Especially for those who understand and value the relevance and pathogenicity of insulin and disease Insulin is almost associated with all chronic diseases but One of them is related to the background conditions When we also learn these textbooks, try to put an arrow to indicate It is actually related to the blood sugar status behind it And insulin? The effect of protein on insulin concentration Is strongly affected by blood sugar status I will mention that we actually look at the study first Declare first This is a study done on dogs But before you start thinking about it, it doesn't matter to humans

In fact, it is very difficult to find a mammalian digestive system more like a human being than a dog Tiny to bacterial level The dog's mouth and digestive system bacteria are also very similar to humans So this is more relevant than you think Regardless of how to challenge this argument In this study you will see the left hand side The only experimental difference on both sides is the addition of glucose on the left hand side You can see that the top is written "Glucose Injection" So the researchers provide the background environment for hyperglycemia in these animals

The right side is not infused with glucose The animal is basically fasting Then inject two doses of alanine in these two groups (Alanine) Alanine is indeed related to it is an amino acid Remind everyone that once they take protein, they will be broken down into amino acids We always say that protein stimulates insulin Strictly speaking, it should be an amino acid But why is alanine so important? Alanine is the most typical amino acid for saccharification When we taught that a certain amino acid would be saccharified, We use alanine as an example because it is good at becoming glucose

You can see that the green line has a peak every time you inject alanine These are very interesting But what happens to insulin and glycoside? On the left we can see the background environment with high blood sugar We see a sharp rise in insulin 130 μU/ml is a very dramatic boost And it is already in a state where insulin has risen because of hyperglycemia So there is another 130 μU above that concentration So insulin has a great reaction to this amino acid injection Conversely, the glycemic glycoside is almost half When we compare these to fasting animals, look at the orange line Insulin has not changed at all And the concentration of glycoside is doubled

Great difference, right? The only difference is that there is glucose infusion on one side On the other side Why is it so or how do we explain it? We can't afford to inhibit the gluconeogenesis Because these animals are fasting If we have a lot of insulin response What effect does it have on their blood sugar? (decline) And those animals will be unconscious So we can't suppress the gluconeogenesis, we must let this effect continue Because that's the only way animals can maintain normal blood sugar Because insulin is elevated by the level of insulin We wait for this meeting, including some data from humans So from this slightly modified system version I can now explain the possible reactions of insulin and glycosides on a low-sugar diet

There is no regular carbohydrate intake in the low-sugar diet and it turns into blood and turns into blood sugar Let's go back to these three organizations In these conditions, people who eat low-carbohydrate diets still have the same reaction In this case carbohydrates and proteins are anabolic to muscles And the intake of fat has no effect on the muscles

This is for people with low-sugar diets Remind me that carbon water and protein are anabolic It’s not that you can get muscle growth without effort It’s not that I have a drink You still need to work hard For fat cells, carbohydrates also promote anabolism The effect of carbon water is the same

In fact, the two react almost Because both fat cells and liver cells have receptors for insulin and glyce So there is this opposite effect, especially when taking protein Indeed, there is some degree of promotion of anabolism But for low-sugar diets, there is a significant non-negligible promotion of decomposition When insulin tries to increase storage, it opens the metabolic pathway that promotes synthesis Glucagon tries to antagonize it, especially in low-carbohydrate diets Putting these together into an approachable Or turn into a focus that is easier to remember I suggest that the easier way to judge these correlations is to assess the ratio of insulin to glycemic And this is especially relevant for the liver, etc

The ratio of insulin to glycemicity shows the basic state of metabolic function In other words, it tells the body tissue, that is, the cells of the body Which metabolic pathways the body should perform or initiate The ratio of insulin to glycemic reveals who wins (hereinafter referred to as "islet sugar ratio") in other words If it is a high "islet sugar ratio", we know that the anabolic pathway is the main trend If the opposite is low, "islet sugar ratio" Then we know that the catabolic pathway is the main trend It’s like a tug-of-war game It’s always in the state of this balance

However, in these cases, the high "islet sugar ratio" represents the state of partial anabolism Low "islet sugar ratio" means the state of partial catabolism There is one thing worth mentioning as a rest stop before my next discussion The low "islet sugar ratio" is very important I advocate that it is the factor that affects the effectiveness of the fasting state Fasting has become very popular Maybe this way is reasonable But sometimes I am a bit worried People soon try to eat fast, maybe not fully told what will happen

Have metabolic benefits but also have bad effects But it is really good I believe that most of the benefits are due to the low "islet sugar ratio" Because low "islet sugar ratio" initiates these benefits such as improving insulin sensitivity Increased autophagy, which is greatly affected by insulin, insulin inhibits autophagy Glucagon starts it Similarly, this is a sub-process of autophagy Granulocyte autophagy Let the mitochondria work healthily to produce less active oxidizing substances Lipolytic effect Of course, the start of the brown adipose tissue I mentioned last year All of this happens in the low "islet sugar ratio" state, that is, when the fasting state dominates The advantage of a low-sugar diet is that it can maintain a low "islet sugar ratio" You get the benefits of these fasting without really starving your body You maintain fuel intake for your body to function properly Of course, the body can work normally when you are fasting But you will get the benefits of fasting hormones in commanding most of the metabolic effects we care about Good just that rest stop You can recognize the benefits of low "islet sugar ratio" Let's take a look at the reaction of insulin and glycoside when one eats three different diets The first is the standard American diet The second is fasting and fasting Then a low sugar diet Let's look at the "islet sugar ratio" in these three states

In the fasting state "islet sugar ratio" is not surprisingly quite low about 08 That is really fasting, I said the fasting I am not referring to the 12-hour fasting This refers to the fasting of 24 hours or longer About 08 This is human data is not a dog All the skeptics can come back This is an undoubted bias towards catabolism

These catabolisms will be activated Said ketogenic is catabolism, some people will argue that it is anabolic It is catabolic Even so, we still get some nutrients from it I can understand the opposite opinion but it is catabolic Anyway, we all agree This "islet sugar ratio" of 08 is definitely catabolic because the initiated reactions are all catabolic reactions When people eat a standard American diet The "islet sugar ratio" is relatively high, about 4 This we know is the state of anabolism We will see that anabolic reactions are initiated, such as fat storage, glycogen storage And we are very concerned about the reaction is suppressed Autophagy is inhibited and ketogenic effects are inhibited

We know that these reactions will occur in a standard American diet in a satiety state At this time, the "islet sugar ratio" is about 4 Finally, we love the low sugar diet Here our "islet sugar ratio" is about 13 Slightly higher than the fasting state But it’s much lower than the standard American diet Once again, we know that when low-sugar diets have low or very low carbohydrate intake, That is catabolic In the low-sugar diet, we see that the biochemical metabolic pathway initiated is the same as the fasting state

So we can say that it is like the "islet sugar ratio" 08 We see that the same response was initiated in 13 Wait a minute, I will talk about this when I take protein But this brings it to this What happens when we add protein to these diets? We are a community that understands and values ​​insulin What is the level of insulin response caused by amino acids after ingesting protein? come and see In the fasting state, if someone is going to fast for a long time I hope they understand that they are doing dry hemp I hope they can avoid rehabilitative syndrome When they eat protein, we see that the "islet sugar ratio" has dropped from 0

8 to 05 So we see that the glycosidic ratio is relatively high regardless of insulin changes This is not unexpected Is this what we see in the dog? Insulin has not changed, but glycoside has risen sharply

This makes the "islet sugar ratio" decline Keep this person in a very catabolic state Is the standard American diet ready? When this person eats protein we see the ratio rise to 70 Going up 20 times The core of this cut The core of the matter is that we collectively recognize the effect of protein stimulation of insulin Because that's reasonable, but we must understand that this is generated in a specific environment People who control our insulin with low sugar diet Our state is like this How do you think it will be ready? When a person takes a low-sugar diet, protein intake will raise this relatively low ratio to In fact, it has not changed Strictly speaking, there is a 6% change, so it is still 13

6% change is 20 times change compared to eating standard American diet So we put these two together and compare We feed them to a standard American diet and a low sugar diet Let them take 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight I just reviewed what I just said Let's look at the reaction of insulin and glycoside We see a large increase in the "islet sugar ratio" on the standard American diet The same phenomenon on the right side did not occur, and the "islet sugar ratio" remained low So the number corresponds to a large change in response People who eat the standard American diet keep coming in

Glucose keeps coming in Protein is basically added to the reaction of insulin to glucose There is no such reaction when the amount of glucose eaten is small Why do you repeat this? In fact, let me quote my idol, Roger Unger, who once said The ratio of insulin and glycoside from no exception is affected by the demand for gluconeogenesis And because in these low-sugar diets Glycogen newborn is very important and really important We can't afford to let insulin rise too much Because if it does, it will prevent hypoglycemia and cause hypoglycemia

Let's look at the liver to see the glucone newborn and see more details On standard American diet and low sugar diet I believe that the reason why the "islet sugar ratio" is so different is because of the demand for new sugar There is no need for new sugar in the standard American diet In low-sugar diets, we need gluconexins Although I said we need glucose But as a scientist, I only know that a cell must use glucose without exception

Do you know what it is? Some people say the brain but I have never seen research confirm this Does anyone know? (beta cell) Can't beta cells be used with other fuels, ketone bodies or fatty acids? Yes, it can, I think so Red blood cell We know that red blood cells are actually the red blood cells I painted We know that red blood cells are completely free of mitochondria Must use glucose without another choice We always say that the brain needs glucose but The brain can easily use ketone bodies

In fact, I think the brain prefers ketone bodies Because when the ketone body produces the brain, it starts to use more without using glucose I understand that this is entirely academic discussion because it is impossible to experiment in the living body Because they will die from lack of glucose But I have never seen any research to confirm that the brain needs glucose Do you understand what I mean? I have never seen this confirmed, but this is far from the subject

But maybe some people will discuss this But if anyone knows that research has confirmed that I really want to know Ok So we mentioned the gluconeogenesis and the "islet sugar ratio" in different situations The standard American diet has a high "islet sugar ratio" Low-sugar diet has a low "islet sugar ratio" In both cases, it is completely predictable that there will be different glyco-regulation situations Glucose rejuvenation is inhibited at high "islet sugar ratio" In the low "islet sugar ratio", saccharification is stimulated just now In addition to regulating glycogen regeneration What is the regulation of insulin and glycoside in the liver? What do you think The ketone effect is correct This is everyone's favorite or scared Or being filthy to see who you are talking to But in any case, these two hormones regulate ketogenic effects just like they regulate gluconeogenesis

In this standard American diet, its "islet sugar ratio" is 4 Very strong inhibition of ketogenic effects Low-sugar diet with low "islet sugar ratio" Start ketogenic effect So how does the effect of protein in this process? That's why so many people are afraid of protein Because they stubbornly pursue ketone body values So they are worried that "this will make me break the ketone, I can't eat!" 』 And I think that is the reason why I want to talk about this theme I think this has led to some strange diet We finally reject the real food Just because it has protein inside, it turns into oil on various foods I don't think that is the best way Even if it increases the concentration of ketone bodies No matter how we look at the biochemical reaction of ketogenic Yes, it’s true that low insulin is indeed one of the necessary conditions for ketogenic effects

But another condition is that we have to raise the glycoside This is the focus of an article published by my good friend last year You can see the changes in the Y-axis of beta-hydroxybutyrate in these animals The X axis is a bit confusing, so let me explain Experimental animals Some beta cells normally secrete insulin and some animals cannot secrete insulin Then divide the two subgroups in the two groups Liver has a functioning normal glycemic receptor animal And the animal without the glycosidic receptor means that there is no signal of glycosidic Let's first look at the difference between insulin and insulin without "glycanin"

In this group we see no insulin at all We see that the ketone body is about 4 times higher than the insulin group on the left A little rise, right? You think that insulin is absolutely in control of ketogenic effects So now there is no insulin at all, no one in these animals Untreated type 1 diabetes They should die from ketoacidosis There should be a lot of ketone bodies

The ketone body should be in the range of ketoacidosis but only a small increase here We will say that they are in the ketone state That's because they don't have a normal glycoside receptor Let's see Insulin deficiency and excess in the state of "normal glycosidic signal" When the signal of glycemic is normal Then about 50 times the yield of ketone bodies This shows the necessity of the normal glycosidic signal for ketogenic effects In fact, protein will increase glyce is another reason to pay attention to protein Indeed, proteins here also promote ketogenic effects Another academic idol, Denis McGarry, also emphasized this focus

He mentioned that glycosides are the main regulator of liver ketones But although I have always stressed that insulin and glycoside before I finish these Another participant must also mention that Carnitine In fact, someone mentioned it before, I think it was mentioned by Robb Wolf yesterday Carnitine is basically providing escort services Don't think about it It accompanyes fatty acids into the mitochondria To allow fatty acids to oxidize Just remind everyone that we must let the fatty acids oxidize to get ketones

We must cut the fatty acid into two carbon and two carbon cuts Ethylene coenzyme A And that will turn into a ketone body that we know and love So we must have enough carnitine To accompany fatty acids into the mitochondria to initiate oxidation Then get the magical ketone effect So all this is very important This is a study done by Dennis McGarry on rats He took the liver out of the satiety and fasting animals You can see that when the animal is in the fasting state, the concentration of the ketone body is about 3 times

The highest point is 3 times Satisfactory animals are basically feeding their usual feed plus carnitine supplements Remind us that we will make carnitine by ourselves In fact, there is no such condition as carnitine deficiency That is, the human body cannot make enough carnitine for the normal operation of the mitochondria So in this example, the effect of adding carnitine on the ketogenic effects of animals I hope everyone can recognize this role

We need enough carnitine for ketogenic effects In fact, as long as fatty acid oxidation is needed So this is the three characters Or the composition of the formula We need low insulin Glucagon Enough carnitine Then meet the requirements for the production of ketone bodies This is a very academic point of view I talk about low insulin and increase glycosides And perhaps the most practical way is to add important macronutrients I advocate when you eat a real diet Of course, to understand the effects of carbohydrates, do not overdose At the end, it looks like this Protein, fat, and carnitine provide the ketone body You may see this place where you might have this magical food

Have a perfect collection of these elements? It’s not hard to find Red meat is the perfect source of the necessary conditions for these three ketones I understand when I am recommending this version of the low sugar diet Not as much as the average person avoids protein I understand that I may inadvertently offend some people So here is my euphemistic conclusion Of course there are many different ways of low sugar diet I reported two reports today On the left is a certain degree of emphasis on protein On the right is very cautious about protein What do they have in common? They all limit carbohydrate intake and that is their common advantage Is also their common foundation It may be relevant to determine which of the two low-sugar diets is best I think it might be helpful to consider your individual's blood sugar status

in other words If a person is initially in a state of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with poor metabolic health That is, pre-diabetes until type 2 diabetes That is, everyone in the modern society Even in industrialized or non-industrialized countries, this phenomenon is common And this may indeed be a good reason to worry about protein intake at the beginning May also depend on personal food preferences I think I want to combine these two versions of the low sugar diet The protein intake is relatively low from the right version Then improve with blood sugar and insulin status Moving to the left this state still limits carbohydrates but understands the importance of protein What does this look like? Because I am not your doctor, I have to give you some advice

And I am not afraid of the accused (Do not use Twitter as well) Because this is entirely academic discussion This is a viable way And this is my bold and funny try to make it easy for everyone to remember I also took my head The first one I proposed In order to maintain a low "islet sugar ratio", it is necessary to limit carbohydrate intake Second, I think that we should pay attention to protein intake Make sure you get enough protein to maintain your net weight and your health The third remaining calories are from fat Let's talk quickly about the details inside

Restricting carbohydrates I mean the most frequently mentioned 50 grams per day This of course varies from person to person and needs to be optimized to be higher or lower to see your personal status But whatever the healthiest range of the individual is They still have to choose the quality of the carbohydrates carefully This is not surprising I personally judge whether the quality of carbohydrates is good or not to stimulate insulin secretion

This is a simplified version Next emphasis on protein I mean when the carbohydrate determination has been limited to a low enough level It is therefore beneficial to ensure that the individual's protein intake reaches 1 to 2 grams per kilogram of net body weight This entire speech, there is a reference source in the corner of the slide Especially the part that I think might be controversial Welcome to query them and draw your own conclusions Just like what I did, I’m going to find out the data and draw my conclusions But I think in order to maintain a healthy net weight, we must make sure that it is within that range And I think sometimes our love for fat prevents us from reaching that range

That is what I want to say Remind everyone that I am 40 years old and I am getting older My children are getting older Our demand for protein rises with age As we get older, we must make sure that the intake is high Dr

Stuart Phillips mentioned that he is a legend in this field As the age gets bigger, it’s getting harder and harder to convert the ingested protein into muscle So we really need a little more and I worry that sometimes everyone can’t get it Third, we will add the remaining calories, whether it is 1500 or 2000 All remaining calorie needs come from fat We are very familiar with these

Nina also gave a great speech yesterday Quality must be carefully selected In essence, I would say that we should choose the fats that humans have been eating since ancient times Fat from animals Or build a large enough lever to squeeze out the oil from the fruit It’s very simple people have been doing this all the time, so animal fat, oil from the fruit We know these better than those industrialized seed oils to sum up I advocate this oversimplified view of healthy eating three steps I think it is healthy because it maintains a metabolically sensible insulin glycosaminoglycan ratio Maintain a low state Get the benefits of fasting but don't have to limit calories And this also ensures that the body is fed enough nutrients Focus on protein to supply the body with what it needs To maintain the rhyme, it is to pay attention to protein

Thank you so much I look forward to your questions Thank you Thank you

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